A private 5G network comprises a wireless local area network (LAN) based on 5G new radio (NR) technology that uses 5G-enabled technologies to create a network with dedicated bandwidth. The network does not share traffic with other licensed cellular networks in the vicinity. The 5G provides vast bandwidth, high data rates (1-20 Gbit/s), ultra-low latency (1 ms), high security, ultra-high reliability, massive connectivity, and scalability to accommodate the enormous volumes of IoT-connected sensors and devices. It offers the possibility of complete control to its owner.
The design of Private 5G satisfies mission-critical wireless communication needs in public safety, industrial operations, and critical infrastructure. The 5G networks use the 3GPP standard that supports business-critical communication requirements. The stand-alone and public network-integrated paradigms are the proposed two basic architectures for private 5G networks. A private 5G network enables companies to customize the network according to specific organizational needs and locations, secure, dedicated coverage, and exclusive use of resources on their timetable. Private 5G networks use network isolation, device/user authentication, and data protection to shield critical assets. The operating entities or enterprises gain data supremacy and are allowed to deﬁne their security strategies and keep sensitive and proprietary data local.
Private operators can deploy their security policies to authorize users, prioritize traffic, and crucially ensure that sensitive data remains within the premises. Private 5G need allocation of the additional spectrum from the government, mobile network operators (MNOs), or third-party spectrum providers to build and maintain their private network. 5G base stations, mini-towers, small cells are required from network infrastructure providers and connect the equipment to edge devices like smartphones, embedded modules, routers, and gateways.
Private 5G networks find deployment in three different types of radio spectrum; Licensed Spectrum, Unlicensed Spectrum, and Shared Licensed Spectrum. Operation in licensed spectrum provides greater certainty of performance with little interference risk. Such an operation is enticing for MNOs in deploying private 5G networks. MNOs can dedicate a portion of the licensed spectrum for private network operation in a specific geographical area. Unlicensed spectrum operates in the 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, or the nascent 6 GHz band. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and various other technologies use these spectrum bands, and they are inherently open for shared usage. Its deployment does not depend on licensed spectrum. Operation in shared licensed spectrum opens a whole new range of possibilities, especially for non-MNOs. (3.5 GHz citizen broadband radio service (CBRS) band in the U.S., the 3.7 - 3.8 GHz band in Germany, and the 3.8 - 4.2 GHz band in the U.K)
Key enabling technologies and developments for the private 5G networks encompass integration with time-sensitive networks (TSNs ), spectrum management, URLLC, interference management, localization, and tracking. Vertical network slicing, improved security, private edge computing are essential at the system level to realizing truly isolated private 5G networks. Network slicing plays a prominent role in private 5G networks since it allows the creation of a network inside a network to supply specific services; it appeals to the coexistence of multiple services/applications. It allows for end-to-end traffic isolation, a vital requirement for delivering strong performance guarantees in multi-service coexistence scenarios.
Private 5G networks use Edge computing as an enabling technology. Private edge computing amplifies the advantages of edge computing by adding secure and private services for local demands and network settings. Location awareness, improved privacy security, conserving cloud storage, reducing energy consumption, and shortening response time are enhanced.
Vertical applications using private 5G networks need to be served by numerous heterogeneous stationary, mobile devices such as sensors, cameras, actuators, mobile robots, programmable logic controllers, and virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) related devices.