RoadTest: MyIoT: Infineon Shield2Go Boards for IoT
Evaluation Type: Development Boards & Tools
Did you receive all parts the manufacturer stated would be included in the package?: True
What other parts do you consider comparable to this product?:
What were the biggest problems encountered?: The female header pins do not fit for Shield2Go Adapter needed to drill more larger then the hole.
The box was nicely packed and have well protected electronics boards. Inside the parcel received XMC1100 Boot Kit, Shield2Go Adapter, XMC 2Go, DPS310 Pressure sensor module, TLI4970 Current Sense module, TLV493D 3DSense module and WeMos Wifi Module.
Fig 1.1 Parcel Packaging Box
Fig 1.2 XMC1100 Bookit Box
Fig 1.3 XMC 2Go
Fig 1.4 Parcel received Development board, Shield Adapter and Sensor Modules
2. Introduction to Infineon XMC1100 Shield2Go
XMC1000 microcontrollers bring together the ARM® Cortex®-M0 core and market proven and differentiating peripherals in a leading-edge 65nm manufacturing process. XMC1000 is the number one choice to bring traditional 8-bit designs to the next level.
32-bit Microcontrollers with ARM® Cortex®-M0 for a broad range of price sensitive applications however demanding state of the art functionality. The XMC1100 series belongs to the XMC1000 Family of industrial microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex-M0 processor core. The XMC1100 series devices are designed for general purpose applications. Increasing complexity and demand for computing power of embedded control applications requires microcontrollers to have a significant CPU performance, integrated peripheral functionality and rapid development environment enabling short time-to market, without compromising cost efficiency.
Summary of Features:
Fig. 2.1 Block Diagram of XMC1100 System Architecture
• CPU Core
– High Performance 32-bit ARM Cortex-M0 CPU
– Most of 16-bit Thumb instruction set
– Subset of 32-bit Thumb2 instruction set
– High code density with 32-bit performance
– Single cycle 32-bit hardware multiplier
– System timer (SysTick) for Operating System support
– Ultra low power consumption
• Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)
• Event Request Unit (ERU) for programmable processing of external and internal service requests
• 8 kbytes on-chip ROM
• 16 kbytes on-chip high-speed SRAM
• up to 64 kbytes on-chip Flash program and data memory
• Two Universal Serial Interface Channels (USIC), usable as UART, double-SPI, quad-SPI, IIC, IIS and LIN interfaces
• A/D Converters, up to 12 channels, includes a 12-bit analog to digital converter
• Capture/Compare Units 4 (CCU4) for use as general purpose timers
• Window Watchdog Timer (WDT) for safety sensitive applications
• Real Time Clock module with alarm support (RTC)
• System Control Unit (SCU) for system configuration and control
• Pseudo random number generator (PRNG), provides random data with fast generation times
• Temperature Sensor (TSE)
• Programmable port driver control module (PORTS)
• Individual bit addressability
• Tri-stated in input mode
• Push/pull or open drain output mode
• Configurable pad hysteresis
On-Chip Debug Support
• Support for debug features: 4 breakpoints, 2 watchpoints
• Various interfaces: ARM serial wire debug (SWD), single pin debug (SPD)
Fig 2.2 Block Diagram - XMC1100 CPU card for Arduino
Fig 2.3 Hardware Information on board (Source -https://in.element14.com/infineon-xmc-1100)
3. XMC 2GO V1
The XMC 2Go equipped with the ARM® Cortex™- M0 based XMC1100 Microcontroller and designed to evaluate the capabilities of the XMC1100 Microcontroller and the powerful, free of charge tool chain using DAVE Software.
Table - 1. Features of the XMC 2Go Kit with XMC1100
|Processor||XMC1100 microcontroller (ARM® Cortex™-M0 based) in a 4 x 4 mm VQFN-24 package|
|Clock Generation||Internal Oscillator|
|Frequencies||32 MHz CPU clock, 64 MHz Timer clock|
|Dimensions||14.0 x 38.5 mm|
Two 8-pin header (pin pitch: 2.54 mm ≙ 0.1” / between rows: 10.16 mm ≙ 0.4”)
Pin header fits to breadboard
On-Board J-Link Debugger supports
Mapped to pin header X1/X2:
|Others||2 User LEDs @ P1.0 and P1.1|
The block diagram in Figure 1 shows the main components of the XMC 2Go Kit including the power supply concept. There are following main building blocks:
Fig 3.2 Block Diagram of the XMC 2Go Kit
Fig 3.3 XMC 2Go Kit with XMC1100
3.1 Power Supply
The XMC 2Go Kit must be supplied by an external 5 Volt DC power supply connected to the Micro UBS plugs (X101). Out of the box with the pre-programmed application and the on-board debugger in operation the XMC 2Go typically draws about 75 mA. This current can be delivered via the USB plug of a PC, which is specified to deliver up to 500 mA. The Power&Debug LED indicates the presence of the generated 3.3V supply voltage. An on-board reverse current protection diode will ensure safe operation and protects the USB port of the Laptop/PC in case power is provided through the pin header X1. If the board is powered via the USB plug, it’s not recommended to apply an additional power supply to the VDD pin of X1 (3.3V), because this power supply could drive against the on-board power supply. The VDD pin can be used to power an external circuit. But care must be taken not to draw more current than 150 mA, which is the maximum current the on-board voltage regulator can deliver. After power-up the Debug LED starts blinking. In case there is a connection to a PC via the Debug USB plug X101 and the USB Debug Device drivers are installed on this PC, the Debug LED will turn from blinking to constant illumination.
3.2 Pin Header Connector
The pin headers X1 and X2 can be used to extend the evaluation board or to perform measurements on the XMC1100. The order of pins available at X1 and X2 corresponds to the pinning schema of the XMC1100 Microcontroller in the TSSOP-16 pin package. The pinning table is also printed onto the bottom side of the PCB.
Fig 3.3 Pinning of Pin Header
3.4 Debugging and UART Communication
The on-board debugger supports 2-pin Serial Wire Debug (SWD), Single Pin Debug (SPD) and UART communication. Both require the installation of Segger’s J-Link Driver which is part of the DAVE™ installation. DAVE™ is a high-productivity development platform for the XMC microcontroller families to simplify and shorten SW development. It can be downloaded at www.infineon.com/dave. The latest Segger J-Link Driver can be downloaded at http://www.segger.com/jlink-software.html. During installation of the J-Link driver you will be asked for the installation of optional components. For support of the UART communication take care to install the CDC USB driver (Composite Device Class). Therefore select the option “Install USB Driver for J-Link-OB with CDC” as shown in Figure 4.
Fig 3.4 Recommended Installation Options for the J-Link driver
The XMC1100 on the XMC 2Go Kit is configured to SWD1 mode. Use the “BMI Get Set” tool integrated into DAVE™ to configure the XMC1100 to e.g. SPD1 mode if required. Take care: Unintended use of the “BMI Get Set” tool can cause the XMC 2Go Kit not to work anymore, e.g. when configuring the XMC1100 to SWD0, SPD0 mode or to productive user mode.
Note: Do not configure the XMC1100 on the XMC 2Go Kit to SWD0, SPD0 or to productive user mode.
Table 2 shows the pin assignment of the XMC1100-VQFN24 used for debugging and UART communication.
Table 2 XMC1100 Pins used for Debugging and UART Communication
|Pin Function||Input / Output||Port Pin|
|Data pin for Debugging via SWD/SPD||I/O||P1.3|
|Clock pin for Debugging via SWD||O||P1.2|
|Transmit Pin for UART Communication||O||P2.1|
|Receive Pin for UART Communication||I||P2.2|
4. DPS310 Pressure Shield2Go
The DPS310 is a miniaturized Digital Barometric Air Pressure Sensor with a high accuracy and a low current consumption, capable of measuring both pressure and temperature. The pressure sensor element is based on a capacitive sensing principle which guarantees high precision during temperature changes. The small package makes the DPS310 ideal for mobile applications and wearable devices.
The internal signal processor converts the output from the pressure and temperature sensor elements to 24 bit results. Each unit is individually calibrated, the calibration coefficients calculated during this process are stored in the calibration registers. The coefficients are used in the application to convert the measurement results to high accuracy pressure and temperature values.
The result FIFO can store up to 32 measurement results, allowing for a reduced host processor polling rate. Sensor measurements and calibration coefficients are available through the serial I2C or SPI interface. The measurement status is indicated by status bits or interrupts on the SDO pin.
Evaluation Board Pin Diagram Details
The DPS310 is a miniaturized digital barometric air pressure sensor with a high accuracy and a low current consumption, capable of measuring both pressure and temperature. The internal signal processor converts the output from the pressure and temperature sensor elements to 24 bit results. Each unit is individually calibrated, the calibration coefficients calculated during this process are stored in the calibration registers. The available raw data of the sensor can be calibrated by using the pre-calibrated coefficients as they are used in the application to convert the measurement results to high accuracy pressure and temperature values.
Fig 4.2 DSP310 SPI/I2C Pin Selection circuit
DPS310 Pressure Shield2Go
The DPS310 Pressure Shield2Go is a standalone break out board with Infineon's Shield2Go form factor and pin out. You can connect it easily to any microcontroller of your choice which is Arduino compatible and has 3.3 V logic level (please note that the Arduino UNO has 5 V logic level and cannot be used without level shifting). Please consult the wiki for additional details about the board.
Each sensor can only work either SPI or I2C. To convert from SPI to I2C, for example, you have to re-solder the resistors on the Shield2Go. Please take care that every Shield2Go for the DPS310 is shipped as I2C configuration right now.
Fig 4.3 DPS310 Warning
Temperature Measurement Issue
There could be a problem with temperature measurement of the DPS310. If your DPS310 indicates a temperature around 60 °C although you expect around room temperature, e.g. 20 °C, please call the function correctTemp() as included in the library to fix this issue.
Interrupt mode not working reliably on XMC2Go for DPS310 right now.
5. TLI4970 Current Sense Shield2Go
The TLI4970-D050T4 is a highly accurate coreless magnetic current sensor. Thus, the output signal is highly linear and without hysteresis. However, a differential measurement principle allows effective stray field suppression. Due to the integrated primary conductor (current rail), there is no need for external calibration. Additionally, a separate interface pin (OCD) provides a fast output signal in case a current exceeds a pre-set threshold.
A small leadless package (QFN-like) allows for standard SMD assembly.
Key features are a AC & DC measurement range up to ±50 A, highly accurate over temperature range and lifetime of max. 1.0 % (0 h), 1.6 % (over lifetime) of indicated value, low offset error (max. 25 mA at room temperature) and a high magnetic stray field suppression. Additionally, the sensor has fast over current detection with configurable threshold and a galvanic isolation up to 2.5 kV max. rated isolation voltage.
The sensor has a 16 bit digital SPI output (13 bit current value).
Fig 5.1 CurrentSense Shield2Go Pin Diagram
The TLI4970-D050T4 is a high-precision digital current sensor. The full scale measurement range is ±50 A. Thesensor is based on Infineon's well- established and robust Hall technology.The measurement principle allows galvanic isolation (functional isolation) between the primary conductor and the secondary interface side.The coreless concept without a flux concentrator allows significant miniaturization. It shows no hysteresis effects and has enhanced linearity and over current capability compared to existing solutions. The differential measurement principle achieves best-in-class suppression of magnetic stray fields. The sensor is fully calibrated; no need for any additional calibration after PCB assembly is necessary. Thus, the overall implementation effort and costs are significantly reduced. It is a plug-and-play solution, easy to use in industrial and consumer applications.
The accuracy of the TLI4970-D050T4 is comparable to closed-loop current measurement systems and even betterthan open-loop systems with magnetic core. But in comparison to the open- and closed-loop system the TLI4970-D050T4 enables a significantly smaller footprint and less power consumption. Infineon's patented stress compensation circuit provides outstanding long-term stability of the output signal.Proprietary dynamic offset cancellation techniques guarantee particularly low zero point error. Hereby, theTLI4970-D050T4 offers superior performance. The TLI4970-D050T4 is based on a digital concept. Thus, signal processing, compensation and calibration is already integrated. No further external measurements for compensation are needed.
The TLI4970-D050T4 is suitable for AC as well as DC current measurement applications:
With its implemented magnetic interference suppression, it is extremely robust when exposed to external magnetic fields. It is also suitable for fast over current detection with a configurable threshold level. This allows the control unit to switch off and protect the affected system from damage, independently of the main measurement path.
Fig 5.2 Functional block diagram of the TLI4970-D050T4
The current, flowing through the current rail on the primary side, induces a magnetic field. This is measured by two differential Hall probes. The signal from the two Hall probes is directly digitalized by a Sigma-Delta-A/D converter (ADC). After the programmable digital low-pass filter, the raw current signal is fed into the DSP. The differential measurement principle of the magnetic field provides a very good suppression of any ambient magnetic stray fields.
The temperature (T) and the mechanical stress (S) of the chip are measured and converted independently of then primary current by a second ADC. The Digital Signal Processing Unit (DSP) uses both temperature and stress information to compensate the raw current signal according to internally stored calibration tables. The interface unit (IF) transmits the fully compensated value via the SPI interface. Furthermore several parameters like low pass filter settings or over current detection (OCD) levels can be programmed via a Serial Inspection and Configuration Interface (SICI) which are described in the TLI4970 programming guide.
For fast over current detection, the raw analog signal from the Hall probes is fed into a programmable comparator. This comparator has a programmable glitch filter to suppress fast switching transients in the signal and to avoid false triggers. The open-drain output of the OCD-Pin allows readout of over current signals for several TLI4970-D050T4 sensors by only one microcontroller input pin.
Fig 5.3 TLI4970-D050T4 CurrentSense selection circuit
the output signal is highly linear and without hysteresis. However, a differential measurement principle allows effective stray field suppression. Due to the integrated primary conductor (current rail), there is no need for external calibration.
The transfer function of the TLI4970-D050T4 can be influenced by different filter settings. Finally the combination of a high-pass filter, a prediction filter and a low-pass filter determines the overall transfer function.
Overview about bandwidth and response time
|High-pass filter||Prediction filter||Low-pass filter||Bandwidth||Response time|
|1||1||7||70 Hz||6.2 ms|
|1||1||6||130 Hz||3.1 ms|
|1||1||5||260 Hz||1.6 ms|
|1||1||4||530 Hz||781 μs|
|1||1||3||1.1 kHz||394 μs|
|1||1||2||2.4 kHz||201 μs|
|1||0||1||5.2 kHz||109 μs|
|1||1||0||6.9 kHz||92 μs|
Note: TLI4970-D050T4 default factory setting is 18 kHz.
Fig 5.4 Response of the different filter settings
Increased Temperature Range
The max. specified ambient operating temperature of 85°C is limited due to the power dissipation in the current rail. The thermal loss finally increases the junction temperature which has to be limited to 125°C. Reducing the current through the current rail decreases the thermal loss and therewith a higher ambient operating temperature is possible.
Fast Over Current Output
The Fast Over Current (OCD) pin allows fast detection of an over current in the measurement path. The OCD signal path is independent from the bandwidth limited current signal path and has a programmable glitch filter to avoid false triggers by noise spikes on the current rail. The symmetric threshold level of the OCD output is adjustable and triggers an over current event in case of a positive or negative over current.
In addition a zero-crossing functionality can be programmed (in this case the over current detection is disabled). If connected via an external pull-up resistor to a logic input pin of the micro-controller, it can be used to trigger an interrupt in the micro-controller and quickly shut off the system to avoid damage from the over current event. The OCD pin has an open-drain output that allows monitoring of several current sensors via only one micro-controller input pin.
6. TVL493D 3DSense Shield2Go
Infineon’s 3D magnetic sensor TLV493D-A1B6 offers accurate three dimensional sensing with extremely low power consumption. Within its small 6-pin package the sensor provides direct measurement of the x, y and z magnetic field components, making it ideally suited for the measurement of 3D movement, Linear travel and 360° angle rotation.
S2Go_3DSense_TLV493D: Infineon’s S2Go_3DSense_TLV493D boards offer a unique customer and evaluation experience – the boards are equipped with one TLV493D-A1B6 magnetic sensor and come with a ready to use Arduino library. Customers can now develop their own system solutions by combining Shield2Go boards together with Infineon My IoT adapters. My IoT adapters are gateways to external hardware solutions like Arduino and Raspberry PI, which are popular IoT evaluation platforms. All this enables the fastest evaluation and development of IoT system on the market!
Summary of Features:
Advantages by using a magnetic 3D sensor
−Sensor in inaccuracies: magnetic amplitudes (=matching), offset and phase
−System errors: Assembly tolerances, lifetime drifts
In several applications it is not possible to access the end of a shaft for an angle measurement as in given figure
Fig 6.1 End of shaft principle
An easy way to use approach is to use a magnetic 3D sensor by measuring the X-Y(X-Z or Y-Z) components. The sensor is located out of the shaft
Fig 6.2 Example: X-Y (centered) configuration
The shaft needs to have a magnetic encoder with at least 2 poles on the shaft
Fig 6.3 Example: Z-X (centered) configuration
Out of Shaft
Magnetic field components
The magnetic encoder provides a magnetic field. The ideal curve would be two sine shape components what show no offset and have a phase shift of 90°.But, due to the “out of shaft
”approach, unfortunately, we have differences in amplitude, offset & phase.This means the components measured by the sensor have to be corrected or calibrated.As an example the magnetic components including the deviation from ideal sine shapes
Fig 6.4 Errors of amplitude, offset and phase
Depending on the configuration between sensor and encoder two out of three components can to be used. Please check out the table of the different placement options between sensor and encoder. These two components are used to calculate the angle by an arctan function.
A positive field is considered as south-pole facing the corresponding hall element. The magnetic directions X, Y, Z of the TLE493D-W2B6 shown below
Fig 6.5 magnetic field direction
Basic calibration parameters
In order to get proper sine and cosine functions with a phase shift of 90° a calibration of three parameters shall be executed.
Following parameters needs to be taken into consideration for calibration:
1. Amplitude1 ratio gx:
a) Select maximum value of sine = Asin_max
b) Select minimum value of sine = Asin_min
c) Select maximum value of cos = Acos_max
d) Select minimum value of cos = Acos_min
2. Offset AO_sin and AO_cos of the sine and cosine signal
3. Phase shift ϕ between sine and cosine
Fig 6.6 the calibration values by simulation
Fig 6.7 Overview of the 3DSense Shield2Go
7. Shield2Go boards and My IoT adapter
Infineon’s Shield2Go boards are equipped with one featured Infineon IC and provide a standardized form factor and pin layout for fast orientation. All boards come with solderless connectors allowing designers to stack the boards instead of soldering them. This makes the Shield2Go boards simple, reusable, and flexible.
In addition, each Shield2Go comes with a dedicated and ready-to-use, free Arduino library. The Shield2Go boards are compatible with all Arduino solutions with Infineon’s My IoT adapters.This combination of flexible hardware components and accompanying software speeds up the prototyping process. Designers now can select only those compo-nents that the intended design and layout require, thus reducing the costs for a “box” or all-in-one solution of components that are rarely used in its entirety.
My IoT adapter board for arduino
Dare to innovate
The My IoT Adapter board enables designers to combine the Shield2Go boards into a system. Infineon’s flexible evaluation boards are compatible with the existing solutions
on the market.My IoT adapters act as gateways to external hardware solutions such as Arduino and Raspberry PI, which are popular IoT evaluation platforms
Maximum flexibility with minimum effort
The IoT market and environment consist of a variety of different wireless connectivity technologies, offering varying benefits. In the end, it is the designer who decides which to use. Infineon’s new prototyping concept consists of a hardware and a software package that allows designers to quickly and efficiently set up the demonstration environment. The prototyping concept based on Shield2Go boards and My IoT adapters provides designers with the flexibility they seek. Engineers can now develop their own, customized system solutions by selecting and combining Shield2Go boards in multiple ways based on their needs and use cases. Together with Infineon’s My IoT adapters, they are able to easily connect to external systems.
Fig 7.1 Connection diagram of modular blocks hardware
8. Testing and Conclusion:
I have being testing hardware for 15 days and got exciting results which are as accurate as mentioned in the datasheets parameters. The chip-sets and the controller modules are higher end performances and provide low powered high quality signals and output through GPIO Port.
Fig 8.1 Connection Diagram of xmc1100 board with Wemos Wifi Module
Fig 8.2 Interfacing Software DAVE for xmc1100 and XMC2Go controller
Fig 8.3 XMC1100 GPIO Noise carrier and tolerance ratio output at 12 Mhz.
Fig 8.4 XMC1100 Output Square-wave Generator code
Fig 8.5 XMC2Go Output of square wave generator using Dave tool.
There few testing remaining and yet to carried out soon on sensors and yet to published soon with certain results with one project.
I would like to thank Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Aurangabad faculty and staff members for helping and providing labs and resources tools.
special thanks to Dr. Ganesh Sable, Dr. Abhilasha Mishra, Mr. Sushas Chate, and other faculty members.